Sierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, south west and north-east simply by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on south-west simply by the Atlantic Ocean. It has an area of twenty-seven, 925 square a long way. The colony of Sierra Leone originated in the sale and even cession in 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of your piece regarding land intended as being a home for African settlers who have been waifs in London and even later it was used as a settlement for separated African slaves. Typically the hinterland was reported a British Protectorate on 21st July, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on 27th April, 61 and became a new Republic in the year of 1971. Education is offered by both personal and state-sponsored universities. The current system of education is 6-3-4-4 (that is definitely six years Principal school, three years Jr Secondary School, 4 years Senior Extra School and 4 decades tertiary/higher education. This specific system is complemented by non- elegant education.
CONCEPT OF EDUCATION AND LEARNING
Education will be frequently employed in the particular sense of training in the class, laboratory, workshop or perhaps domestic science place and consists primarily inside the imparting by simply the teacher, plus the acquisition simply by pupils, of data and mental while well as manual skills. A broader meaning than instruction is that involving schooling. That is to say all that goes in inside the school while part of the particular pupil’s life presently there. It provides, among other things, relationship between pupils and teachers, pupils and learners both in and outside the college. T. S. Mill (1931) opined that whichever helps to form the human staying; to make the particular individual what this individual is or prevent him from becoming what he or she is not is part of his / her education. Implicitly education and learning is lifelong and even ubiquitous; it is the total total of just about all influences which get to create a person what he or she is, by birth to death. It includes the property, our neighbors, as well as the street among other people.
Education is to be able to some extent a new deliberate planned method devised and conducted by the instructor with all the purpose regarding imbuing the novice with certain data, skills, of head and body while well as methods of behavior considered desirable. In part is it doesn’t learner’s personal reaction to the surroundings in which they lives. Education provides three focal factors: the individual/person on whom the educator’s influences are delivered to bear; the society or community to which they belongs; and typically the whole context involving reality within which often the individual in addition to society play their particular part. Man is a social animal; he grows being a person through typically the impact of individuality on personality; and even even for their basic physical demands he depends upon what help and cooperation of his fellow men and women. Without having society and the particular mutual support and enrichment of encounters which it provides civilization is impossible plus the life regarding man, in Hobbes’ words, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short. “
One of the fundamental facts associated with human existence is the tension involving the pull of the particular past and the forward urge into the future, between stability and change, tradition and development. For effective lifestyle, man requires a circle of security, a good area of recognized habits and romantic relationship which forms trustworthy relationships. This is definitely also true involving society. For the effective functioning generally there must be a fundamental continuity of cultures and outlook which usually preserves its personality as a modern society and safeguards it against the disruptive outcomes of change. Switch must be for life and not stationary but this alter in turn must be controlled simply by the basic practices of society. It is tradition which gives a nation the character and distinctiveness as a community. The conservation regarding tradition therefore is usually obviously crucial.
That has been acknowledged from time immemorial that the resource efficiency of traditional schooling has an essential part to perform in the development of the child. Typically the children of today are typically the adults of the next day; they must be trained therefore, to will usually inherit and perpetuate the particular beliefs and settings of life peculiar to the certain society to which often they belong. For every society has got the desire to maintain itself not only physically but since neighborhood consciously sharing particular aims, ideals in addition to patterns of conduct. This type regarding education is certainly not necessarily formal inside schools through class room instruction but that will effected indirectly by means of the family in addition to with the impact on the subject of the individual associated with social influences plus customs which the child cannot avoid. In Sierra Leone this social schooling included elaborate services of initiation including feats of stamina by which young adult men and women need to prove themselves worth the community. The ultimate goal was to produce someone who was honest, respectful, skilled, cooperative, and who else could adapt typically the social order regarding the day. Since Aristotle once explained “the constitution regarding a state will suffer if schooling is neglected. Typically the citizens of a new state should usually be educated to match the constitution from the state. The sort of character correct to a metabolism is the influence which continues to be able to sustain this that is also the particular state force which originally created it” (p. I).
TRADITIONAL EDUCATION IN SOCIETY
Traditional education offers both a creative and even conservation function throughout society; this is a powerful means of keeping a society’s traditions, if not culture. Previously the characteristics and needs regarding society played a vital part in determining the size of education. Professor Meters. V. C. Jeffreys (1950) once published in his book, Glaucon, that “in a tranquil culture the academic system may tend to reflect typically the social pattern, although social uneasiness and even instability create chance for using education as an tool of social change”(p. 7). A related view was shared by John Dewey (1897) who opined that through schooling society can produce its purposes, will organize its personal means and solutions and thus preserve itself with definiteness and economy in the direction in which it wishes to be able to move. Education appearances both to the previous and the future; inevitably it reflects the traditions and even character of community. Traditional education enables you to prepare for alterations in society and anticipate preventing changes or the associated with changes in community.
Traditional education sustains and hands on the customs and even ways of life which constitute the smoothness of a culture and maintains their unity. It in addition helps society to be able to interpret its functions in new ways to be able to meet the challenges of change, in search of ways or traces of development which are consistent with typically the traditions and customs and will concurrently raise society to some more complete fulfillment of itself.
TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS THROUGHOUT SIERRA LEONE
History reveals that right now there were no elegant schools where youngsters were educated within Pre-colonial Sierra Leone. The Poro and Bondo/Sande Secret Societies were viewed seeing that institutions to train kids. They were rose bush schools. And the education these rose bush schools provided was informal. Children that had these magic formula societies were regarded as competent at carrying out there their civic duties. They became grownups and can get married to and start existence. They considered themselves jointly family. In other words each Secret Societies created a sense of comradeship and unity amongst members irrespective involving family, clan or even ethnic affiliation. That was therefore regarded that children who had not gone through these secret societies were not totally matured.
future university will be for boys. The particular spiritual head of the Poro Community is Pa Gbonu, seen only by older graduates or perhaps members. The bodily heads are typically the Pa Sama Yorgbors and Pa Somanos. They direct typically the activities with the institution. The senior teachers are the Pennsylvania Kashis, who generally teach and give instructions to other initiators. The Pennsylvania Manchiyas act as educators to the starts while the Kachemas will be the scaring mood. They scare the particular women and children alike together with the brand new initiates. The Rakas are the errand boys carrying messages around. The Yambas are the mind boys. The Bomos will be the senior prefects even though the Sayboms are usually the prefects; and even the monitors would be the Gbanaboms. Informal classes are held in typically the Secret Poro Rose bush. The subjects taught include Creative Useful Arts, Performing Disciplines, Practical Agriculture, Treatments i. e. usage of local herbs for the treatment of distinct ailments), warfare in addition to other skills. Found in Creative Practical Martial arts initiates are trained how to produce fishing nets, containers, mats, and etching wood and cleaning soap stones into distinct objects such as animals and individuals; in Performing Martial arts initiates are trained singing, dancing and even the use regarding Poro musical instruments. In Practical Culture initiates practice farming. Boys are trained to deal with hardship without having complaint and expand used to it. Thus these are taken in order to the farms of their teachers plus elders to function on pro vale basis. However throughout the harvest time initiates could move through these farms getting whatever they need and eat with no being questioned by simply farm owners. Initiates are taught to be able to respect elders plus use of guns to kill pets. In a comparable vein initiates will be taught how to use guns in fighting in security of their neighborhoods. Other skills starts are taught incorporate making fish traps, fishing and looking net, and basketry. In the use associated with herbs initiates pay money (some widely given) for healing various sicknesses along with protection against enemies, evil spirits plus snake bites. Initiates who would like to cause damage to others making use of herbs could ‘redeem’ the herb/medicine worried. Over all starts are taught a new Language talked only by associates called Ke Sornor. For example fonka trika meaning We are talking to a person; fonka bonomi which means Discuss. The work with of this new Language makes participants very proud and even feel different by non-initiates. Graduates come out with brand new names such while Lamp, Langba and even Kolerr. A graduating ceremony climaxes the particular event.